Read e-book online Air: The Excellent Canopy PDF

By Frank Fahy

ISBN-10: 1904275427

ISBN-13: 9781904275428

We take it with no consideration, yet with no it we perish and if we proceed to abuse it, it could actually kill us after all. This attention-grabbing textual content offers an figuring out and appreciation of the position that air performs in our surroundings and its value with regards to human existence and know-how. aimed toward those people who are scientifically curious yet who've no professional education, it includes no mathematical equations and depends the qualitative descriptions and analogies to provide an explanation for the extra technical elements of the textual content including uncomplicated domestic experiments to demonstrate quite a number air-based phenomena. Liberally illustrated with various line drawings and pictures, it recommends extra interpreting in case you are influenced to benefit extra. This booklet bargains precious history analyzing for either physics lecturers and scholars.

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3 VISCOSITY AND THE BOUNDARY LAYER It may surprise you to learn that, in addition to pressure gradients, air motion is also influenced by a form of 'stickiness' or 'viscosity' such as we usually associate with liquids like motor oil and treacle. Viscous forces arise when adjacent layers of fluid have different speeds, so causing a shearing motion as illustrated by Fig. 2 in which a thin layer of fluid is sandwiched between two plane surfaces, one of which is sliding past the other: the fluid 'sticks' to each of the surfaces.

3(a)) acting on fluid elements to cause them to rotate as they move. The measure of this rotation is defined as 'vorticity' which is numerically equal to twice the rate of rotation. Vorticity is a fundamental feature of fluid flow that is usually produced by interaction between viscous fluid flow and solid surfaces, as in boundary layers, or by the interaction between two airflows of different speeds, such as flow emerging from a pipe in the atmosphere, which creates a shear layer. The generation of vorticity is essential to the generation lift and drag by a wing.

In cases of supersonic flight, the second non-dimensional parameter that must be the same for model and full scale aircraft is the 'Mach Number' (M). This is the ratio of the flight speed to the speed of sound (see Chapter 4). The speed of sound in air is proportional to the square root of absolute temperature, so this requirement does not pose a difficult practical problem of flight simulation by wind tunnel models. The boundary layer on a smooth flat plate remains laminar over a stream wise distance corresponding to a Reynolds number of about 100,000, and is definitely turbulent beyond a streamwise distance corresponding to a Reynolds number exceeding 2,000,000.

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Air: The Excellent Canopy by Frank Fahy

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